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History of Gelatin Equipment in China
Wenlie Zhu (2019.9.6)
In the past 20 years, China has made significant developments in the research and development and manufacture of gelatin equipment. From technological backwardness to world-leading, from the importing country to the exporting country, the production and supply of domestic advanced gelatin equipment has changed the production face of the gelatin industry and realized Large-scale, modern production, great development of gelatin production, world-leading production scale and technical level.
1. Gelatin drying equipment:
1.1 Development process of drying equipment
From 1950 to 1970, the drying equipment for bone glue and gelatin was tunnel drying. The tunnel was dried into a tunnel with a length of about 50 cm. It was divided into a cold air section and a hot air section. There were steel rails and flat cars. Natural cold gels were frozen and manually sliced. The film is placed on a wire grid, placed on a flatbed truck, pushed into the tunnel from the cold air section, and pushed out from the hot air section. The drying cycle is 3 to 5 days, and production is suspended for 2 months in summer.
In 1968, Tianjin Rubber Factory successfully developed a drip pellet molding machine and a rotary continuous dryer to produce bead rubber (developers Zhu Wenlie, Duan Yongchang). The drip pellet forming machine is a rotary hub, which leads to the frozen brine inside. The glue drops onto the hub surface, and after being condensed, it is scraped off by a scraper and dried in a rotary dryer. The rotary dryer is a rotary drum. The cylinder wall is made of stainless steel wire mesh. The outer cylinder is divided into four chambers. Each chamber is equipped with a radiator and a fan. The temperature is increased from room to room. The rubber particles are discharged from the fourth room. The single production capacity is 1 ~ 1.5 tons / day. The produced bead gum has good appearance and color, which is welcomed by the market. Subsequently, drip granulation and rotary continuous dryers were widely promoted throughout the industry, replacing tunnel drying and becoming the setting equipment for bone glue and gelatin production. Bone glue production is still in use today.
From 1970 to 2002, Shanghai Gelatin Factory successfully developed a trough type gel glue machine and a circular flat bed dryer with vertical stirring, developed by Wang Shijun. Tianjin Rubber Factory successfully developed a rectangular flat bed dryer, developed by Zhu Wenlie. The rectangular flat bed dryer has the characteristics of self-circulating hot air, controllable temperature and high efficiency. Simple flat bed dryer is made of brick trough, stainless steel wire mesh bed, equipped with radiator and fan, minced with jelly using a meat grinder, spread on the bed to blow dry, because of low cost and easy manufacturing, It is widely used. The drying cycle is 1 to 2 days. The daily output of 3 tons of gelatin requires 40 dry flat beds of 8 m2. It takes up a large area of factory building, is labor-intensive, consumes large amounts of gelatin, and the bacterial content of gelatin exceeds the standard. It cannot produce edible gelatin. Months.
Jinan Rubber Factory has developed a plastic bead molding machine that drips the glue into cold mineral oil. The plastic beads are round, transparent, and good in color. However, after entering the market, they failed due to the odor of grease.
Tianjin Rubber Factory has developed a spray dryer to produce powdered bone glue and sold it to the market. However, the product failed due to problems such as agglomeration in the packaging bag, floating on the water surface when dissolved, and slow water absorption.
1.2 Import and development of long net dryer
In 1980, Qingdao Gelatin Factory imported a British APY company long net dryer, which uses lithium chloride rotor dehumidifier to dehumidify, but failed because the rotor was blocked by dust during operation.
In 1985, Jiaozuo Golden Arrow Gelatin Co., Ltd. imported a long-net dryer made by the Dutch Fans, which uses a lithium chloride liquid dehumidifier, which has a good application effect. Shanghai Gelatin Plant, Qinghai Gelatin Plant, and Lanzhou Gelatin Plant also The long-net dryers from the Netherlands have been imported.
Shijiazhuang Longsheng Gelatin Company imported a long-net dryer made in the United States, which uses a triethylene glycol liquid dehumidifier, but failed due to the loss of triethylene glycol during operation.
The imported equipment is expensive. The long-net dryer for an annual output of 750 to 1,000 tons of gelatin projects is about 1.5 million US dollars. The plate evaporator is also imported equipment from abroad. The investment in imported equipment in the gelatin project accounts for about the total investment. 70% and need to apply for foreign exchange. Therefore, the State Planning Commission, the Ministry of Machinery, and the Ministry of Light Industry jointly issued a document to approve that the China Gelatin Association instructed Harbin Oxygen Plant to develop a long-network dryer and a dehumidifier, and instructed Lanzhou Petroleum Machinery Research Institute to develop a plate evaporator. From 1982 to 2000, some domestic manufacturers in Jiangxi, Qingdao and other places manufactured long-net dryers and dehumidifiers and applied them in gelatin construction projects. In addition to these imitation equipment, in addition to the extruder failed to meet the technical requirements, All due to failure of the dehumidifier. Production was reduced in spring and autumn, and production was suspended in summer.
1.3 Development of domestic long net dryer
In 2002, Daan Gelatin Company constructed a 1,000-ton-per-year gelatin project. The leader of the company actively requested to sign a supply contract for long-net dryers with Wanfeng Company, and believed that engineer Zhu Wenlie of Wanfeng Company could design and manufacture dryers that would not stop production in summer. And willing to take risks for this.
Wanfeng Company applied for funding from the National Innovation Project, and independently designed the process and equipment design of dryers and dehumidifiers (designers Zhu Wenlie, Duan Yongchang, and Zhu Rong) manufactured the first annual output of 1000T gelatin for Daan Gelatin Company. Net dryer, lithium chloride liquid dehumidifier and automatic control of the whole system, the technical performance has reached the contract requirements and design requirements, normal production throughout the year and reached the expected production capacity.
In view of the successful production and operation of the dryer manufactured by Wanfeng Company in Da'an Gelatin Company, the price is only one-third of the imported equipment, which has won the trust of the gelatin industry. From 2003 to 2018, 54 long-net dryers have been produced. Machine, spreading all over the country, 46 gelatin companies have purchased the long net dryer manufactured by Wanfeng Company, which has made the gelatin industry in our country obsolete all flat bed dryers. Wanfeng company has manufactured and applied long-net dryers. According to the rated equipment production capacity, the annual output of gelatin is about 88,000 tons per year, which is equivalent to the long-net dryers produced by the Dutch Fans for the company for 60 years. Wanfeng became the world's manufacturer of gelatin equipment.
1.4 Entering the International Market
In 2006, the world's largest multinational gelatin company, Galida (Germany) built a gelatin plant in Liaoyuan. At this time, Wanfeng had 10 long-net dryers in production and operation in domestic gelatin plants. After inspection, Garida Gelatin Abandoned the Dutch Fansi as the company's equipment and purchased a long net dryer and dehumidifier with an annual output of 4,000 tons of gelatin produced by Wanfeng Company. The long net dryer has been running for over 14 years.
In 2007, Galida (Australia) purchased a fourdrinier dryer with an annual output of 3,000 tons of gelatin.
In 2007, Sterling, India's Sterling Gelatin Company purchased a long-net dryer with an annual output of 1,500 tons of gelatin, and the application effect was good. In 2009, a new gelatin plant was built, and two long-net dryers with an annual output of 3,000 tons of gelatin and an evaporator and filter with an evaporation capacity of 7,500 kg / hr were purchased.
In 2012, Thailand's Jiahua Cartino Gelatin Company purchased a complete set of equipment with an annual output of 3,000 tons of gelatin, including long-net dryers, dehumidifiers, three-effect evaporators, glue pots, sterilizers, membrane concentrators, ion exchangers, and filters. Machine and so on.
In 2012, Egypt's Amin Gelatin Company purchased a complete set of equipment with an annual output of 1,000 tons of gelatin, including raw material processing tanks, 30m3 water-washing gel pots, long-net dryers, dehumidifiers, membrane thickeners, gelatin crushing and packaging systems, and filters. Wait.
All foreign gelatin companies in China, such as Rousselot Gelatin (France), Gelius Gelice Gelatin (Japan), and Pubang Gelatin (Belgium), use long-line dryers from Wanfeng.
1.5 Innovative design
The long net dryer and lithium chloride liquid dehumidifier manufactured by Wanfeng Company are designed for independent innovation and are highly efficient and energy-saving. Wanfeng's dehumidifier has an outlet temperature of 38 ° C, a moisture content of 8g / kg, and a relative humidity of RH19%. It is only cooled by cooling water in a cooling tower. The difference between the air temperature of 6 ℃, in addition to the cooling water consumption, the temperature of the dehumidified air entering the dryer is 6 ℃ higher, which saves steam consumption by heating the air at 6 ℃. The dehumidifier designed by Wanfeng Company uses a low-air velocity countercurrent process to solve the problem of loss of dehumidifying liquid. The dehumidifier with an air intake of 130000m3 / hr is the liquid dehumidifier in the world so far. It has been running for 14 years without the need to add lithium chloride. Equipped with dehumidifying liquid filter and air pre-treatment room, filtering, purifying and preheating the air, eliminating the entrainment of the mist caused by the foam generated by the dehumidifying liquid due to dust and the loss of the dehumidifying liquid.
In winter, the 60 ℃ air discharged from the eighth room of the dryer is introduced into the pretreatment room and mixed with outdoor -10 ℃ cold air to 30 ℃, which saves 220 tons / day of steam consumption (equivalent to 4.3 tons / day of coal), and the entire system automatically controls. The temperature of each room of the extruder and dryer is automatically controlled, the liquid level of the dehumidifier and the temperature of the air outlet are automatically controlled, and the operation is highly automated.
A foreign company designed and manufactured a long-net dryer, using 2 sets of rotary dehumidifiers with an air volume of 60,000m3 / h, equipped with a total cooling capacity of 1012kw, chilled water in the freezing mechanism, and a cold water tower with a water supply of 300m3 / h. The total installed capacity is about 650kw. Compared with Wanfeng's dehumidifier with an air volume of 130000m3 / hr, its air preheating and regeneration consumes 36T / day more steam (equivalent to 6.6T / day for coal, 4.5 times more electricity, and electricity and operating costs are about 20,000 yuan more per day.)
2.Evaporation sterilization equipment
2.1 Development process of evaporation equipment
From 1950 to 1984, the evaporation equipment used a single-effect external circulation evaporator, a jet vacuum pump, and intermittent evaporation, with large energy consumption and low efficiency.
In 1985, Jiaozuo Golden Arrow Industrial Co., Ltd. imported plate evaporators from the British APV company, and gelatin companies that subsequently imported plate evaporators included Qinghai Gelatin Factory, Lanzhou Gelatin Factory, and Xuzhou Gelatin Factory.
Shanghai Gelatin Factory imported a falling film evaporator produced by Wigan of Germany, followed by Baotou Gelatin Factory and San Gelatin Company.
The Lanzhou Petroleum Machinery Research Institute once manufactured plate evaporators. It was used in several gelatin projects in the 1990s, but was not promoted in the gelatin industry.
Each effect of the plate type and falling film evaporator is a large circulation external circulation evaporation. Each effect needs to be equipped with a circulation pump, resulting in large machine assembly capacity and high power consumption, which have not been promoted in the industry.
2.2 Research and development of domestic advanced evaporator
From 2001 to 2002, Wanfeng designed and manufactured a three-effect film-elevating three-effect evaporator with an evaporation capacity of 3,000 kg / hr and supplied it to Jiaozuo Jinjian Industrial Corporation, and designed and produced a three-effect film-elevating evaporator with an evaporation capacity of 6,000 kg / hr. Cello (Daan) Gelatin Company (Designers: Zhu Wenlie, Duan Yongchang).
Jiaozuo Jinjian Industrial Corporation uses an APV plate evaporator and a rising film three-effect evaporator to simultaneously evaporate and condense the same batch of gelatin solution. The freezing power of gelatin concentrated by the rising film three-effect evaporator is 22g / bloom higher.
Rousselot (Da'an) Gelatin Company conducted equipment acceptance monitoring on the rising film three-effect evaporator. The evaporation capacity reached 6500kg / hr and the steam consumption ratio was 34%. All technical parameters met the design requirements and contract requirements, and were highly praised by French engineers.
The film-elevating three-effect evaporator is specially designed by Wanfeng Company for the gelatin industry. The unique design structure of the evaporator allows the glue to pass only once in any effect, the flow rate is fast, the heat transfer efficiency is improved, the residence time is short, and the heating is reduced. Loss of gelatin freezing force, no effective pump, glue flows by the pressure difference of the vacuum system. Full system automatic control-preheating temperature, liquid flow rate, steam pressure, condensing pressure, thick glue level, all variables are fixed, according to the concentration of the glue solution and the required glue solution concentration, just set the steam inlet The valve opening degree, the system can continuously obtain the specified glue concentration, automatic operation, high efficiency, protection of freezing power, energy saving, easy operation, so some users call it a fool evaporator.
The design evaporation of the evaporator is based on negative pressure operation (first-effect shell-side pressure-0.01Mpa). When the shell-effect valve and steam valve are adjusted to adjust the shell-side pressure to positive pressure operation, the evaporation can be increased by 20%.
The high-efficiency, energy-saving and fully automated evaporator manufactured by Wanfeng Company is welcomed by various gelatin companies in the gelatin industry. The old equipment is dismantled and the evaporator of Wanfeng Company is purchased for renewal.
From 2003 to 2016, Wanfeng has produced 72 three-effect and four-effect evaporators for domestic and foreign gelatin companies.
Gelatin solution is a colloidal solution. Its heat transfer coefficient decreases as the concentration of the glue increases. When the evaporation terminal concentration of a conventional evaporator is high, its evaporation will be greatly reduced. Wanfeng Company designed and manufactured a spiral tube flash evaporator, 20% Concentrated glue solution evaporates to 30 ~ 35% in one pass
In 2012, Wanfeng Company designed and manufactured a set of evaporation equipment for Gaoyi Gelatin Company. It uses a secondary membrane to concentrate to 20% of the glue solution, and enters a spiral tube flash evaporator to evaporate to 30%. A process without a large evaporator.
Flash steam sterilizer:
Wanfeng Company successfully developed a sterilizer that directly injects steam into the glue solution. The sterilization time is 6 seconds. The glue solution is heated by the sterilized heat exchanger, and the steam is evaporated while the glue concentration is evaporated. 30% or more. From 2002 to 2018, 37 flash sterilizers have been produced for domestic and foreign gelatin companies.
In 2010, Wanfeng Company and the American Coriolis Company reached a strategic cooperation. For the first time, the membrane concentrated gelatin solution application technology was successfully promoted to the Chinese gelatin industry. The primary membrane was concentrated to the gel concentration of 10%, and then the secondary membrane was concentrated to the gel concentration. 20%. Membrane concentration does not require steam, which saves energy and reduces operating costs.
Glue purification equipment:
Wanfeng companies such as cotton cake filters, ion exchangers, and CIP cleaning systems have produced a large number of equipment for domestic gelatin companies.
3, plastic pot
Glue pot is an important device to determine the quality of gelatin products and good gelatinization rate. Collagen is hydrolyzed to gel at lower temperature and has high freezing force. Therefore, a glue of 55 ℃ is used, which is raised by 5 ℃ one by one. Yield of gelatin, but the prerequisite for gel extraction in separate lanes is that the temperature of the glue solution in any part of the glue pot must be the same, there is no temperature difference, otherwise the gel extraction fails in lanes, and the gelatin can only be cooked twice. Reduced, so the temperature difference is the most important technical index of the plastic pot.
Outer circulation cooker:
A plate heat exchanger is set outside the pot, and the glue is circulated by a pump. The Tianjin glue factory was used in the 1970s.
Shallow pan cooking pot (Designer: Zhu Wenlie)
Volume is 6m3, diameter is 2.5m, height is 1.2m, snake tube is heated, bottom plate with high porosity is used, central porous convection tube is set, there are 4 porous convection tubes on the wall of the pot, reinforced glue automatic convection, temperature difference is less than 2 ° C. The gelatin pot has good effect of separating glue, and it was applied in many gelatin expansion projects in the last century.
Air-float glue pot, 30 / 50m3 (Innovative design of Wanfeng Company, designer: Duan Yongchang, Xiong Zefu)
Compressed air is used for stirring, air-floating liquid, multi-row tube steam distribution type net heat source. The temperature and liquid level are automatically controlled, and the temperature difference is less than 1 ℃. This type of boiling pot is applied in Lanzhou Amin Gelatin Company